Waste Palm Oil Factory made ​​for Renewable Energy

Rising prices of LPG gas (LPG) made us realize that the fuel is mined from the bowels of the earth will gradually run out. Availability of LPG fuel gas will be increasingly depleted and the price will soar further. It is time we switch to renewable energy sources. One of these renewable energy from palm oil mill waste.

Energy from mine materials such as petroleum and natural gas is expected to be exhausted within a relatively short time. Like it or not Indonesia should immediately seek renewable energy sources (renewable energy) to meet future energy needs. One source of renewable energy that has not been widely used is the energy from biomass.

Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Utilization have calculated the energy potential of biomass in the amount of 50,000 MW, but that has been used only for 302 MW. One of a number of very large biomass and not yet widely used is palm oil mill effluents which amounted to thousands of tons.

Palm oil mill effluents are very abundant. Currently estimated amount of waste palm oil mills in Indonesia reached 28.7 million tons of liquid waste / year and 15.2 million tons of solid waste (TKKS) / year. Of waste can be produced approximately 90 million m3 of biogas. This amount is equivalent to 187.5 million tonnes of LPG gas. The number of biogas is enough gas to meet the needs of a billion households (head of household) for one year.

The main component of biogas is methane (CH4) is in fact already started to use since a few decades ago, but not many people used. Biogas is known to the public more results from processing of animal manure or human waste. Actually, biogas can also be produced from other biomass.

Biogas is more environmentally friendly than gasoline. The burning of biogas (methane) will produce carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and water (H2O). Both of these gases as gases that are emitted from the human nose. Compare with a lot of fuel causes air pollution.

One m3 of methane gas can be converted into energy by 4700-6000 kcal or 20-24 MJ. Setera with such energy that the energy produced by 0.48 kg of LPG gas (LPG). The use of methane gas does not only produce great energy but also more environmentally friendly.

Methane gas is a gas produced from anaerobic overhaul of organic compounds, such as palm oil effluent. This gas is naturally produced in the swimming-pool processing palm oil mill effluent. Liquid waste stored in open ponds will release methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both of these gases is the emission of gases causing the greenhouse effect that is harmful to the environment. During these two gases are allowed to just evaporate into the air.

Methane formation involves a highly complex microbial activity. Some of these microbial groups will gradually break down organic material in wastewater or solid waste to methane gas produced. First, the hydrolytic microbes will break organic materials into smaller compounds. Complex organic materials are polymers generally, the results of fractions is the monomer-monomer. The results of solving these complex organic materials such as: glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.

Second, the microbial fermentation acids. This microbial group will remodel the organic monomers into acid, are compounds of organic acids, alcohols, and ketones. The next Tapap acetogenik microbial groups will merombaknya to acetic acid, CO2, and H2. The next group of microbes produce methane (metanogenik) will change those acids into methane gas.

Overhaul of the organic material occurs in the absence of oxygen (O2) called anaerobic conditions. Naturally the methane formation process is very slow and the gas generated is also small. To be able to break down waste into biogas pbrik palm oil in bulk, it takes a little engineering.

Liquid waste is placed in a special place called a bioreactor. Bioreactor can be arranged so that the optimum conditions to produce biogas. Can also be added to the microbes that will accelerate the formation of gas sealed metan.Bioreaktor that does not allow the methane gas generated out of the bioreactor.

Methane gas flowed or pumped into the holding tank. Gas that has been deposited can be used for various purposes. Methane gas can also be compressed and liquefied then stored in tubes of smaller, such as LPG cylinder.

The processing of solid waste into biogas TKKS more difficult than the liquid waste. TKKS are organic compounds that are more complex than the liquid waste. TKKS must dirobak or decomposed metanogenik advance so that microbes can use it to produce methane gas.


Advantage mainly of methane is its renewable (renewable) and more environmentally friendly than gasoline and CNG. Methane gas from waste biomass can dihasikan an abundant amount. Overhaul of waste biomass into biogas in addition to supplying the energy needs can also reduce environmental pollution.

Biogas energy potential and advantages of methane gas present to the attention of many parties. The research team headed by Dr. Siswanto of Plantation Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute in collaboration with one of the palm oil mills are developing biogas technology of liquid and solid waste palm oil. Large companies from Japan, Mitsubishi, exploring biogas from waste oil on a large scale in Malaysia began in 2004.

Cooperation with ASEAN COGEN doing some projects on biogas in some ASEAN countries to develop renewable energy from waste biomass. Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2005 to give grants of $ 500,000 to the government of Indonesia to develop biogas from palm oil mill waste.

Biogas has been used widely in several countries. Germany developed a biogas-fueled cars, such as buses, taxis, garbage trucks, and other cars. In India has been in operation some three-wheeled car, sort of bajaj vehicles, which use biogas fuels. Biogas is also used to generate electrical energy. In biogas plants used for boilers or engines for power generation.

If the development of biogas from palm oil mill waste is managed in Indonesia, it is not impossible that the current LPG prices soared biogas will be replaced by a much cheaper price.

1 komentar:

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